Despite advances in the treatment of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, people living with the infection still face many challenges. It is known that HIV/AIDS generates a psychological impact that can threaten a person's internal well-being and cause significant emotional distress. As a result, infected individuals develop a so-called crisis framework that affects all areas of their lives, be it relational, professional, social, or intrapersonal. In this case, they demonstrate a level of ineffective adaptation, which presents in different ways. This can include being more confrontational or showing weak coping skills.
Besides the aspect of how to deal with the illness mentioned above, one cannot help but point out the difficulties faced by South Africans infected with HIV and AIDS, and that these challenges can generate prevailing conditions such as depression and anxiety symptoms. Precipitating factors include living with the infection, the impact of the diagnosis, the disease's progression, and the related psychosocial impact.
Initially, the insertion of South African psychologists in this field was made through various activities in training, such as psychological counselling and psychotherapy. According to research on professional practices in the field of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, it is considered vital to provide care to people who receive a diagnosis and to provide psychological support on the impact of the diagnosis.
Today, the mental health playground in South Africa is more consolidated and has responded to HIV/AIDS care in several ways: in prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of the general population and specific population. Furthermore, these actions are developed in conjunction with other health professionals to provide patients with a holistic intervention strategy.
The specificity of a psychologist's work and the unique South African population served requires a professional, multifaceted. and multicultural approach that can combine knowledge from different areas of psychology and sources of information. This method and wider spread area of knowledge make it possible for ethical care that is both efficient and committed.
Psychological interventions are usually aimed at people living with HIV and AIDS, family members and caregivers. It can also be provided on an individual scale, for couples, and within family and group contexts. This highlights the multiple parties that can be affected by an infected person and, as such, the importance of emphasising the need for psychological intervention strategies that are unique to different groups and populations.
Specifically, a psychologist's treatment plan may begin from the time of diagnosis or after diagnosis in treatment adherence and compliance. Regardless of the stage, the work of a psychologist is to provide support for and to identify the effects of HIV and AIDS. That is, detect and work with the aspects that underly the disease. This approach to psychological care ensures that people are empowered and supported to deal with the issues that arise. This includes fear, anxiety, and other psychosocial issues that can sometimes influence adherence to treatment, self-esteem and self-care. What has been observed is that psychosocial factors that are prominent in South Africa - stigma, social isolation and prejudice - seem to generate more trouble than actually living with the disease.
Psychological interventions can promote changes in the emotional, psychosocial aspects, in coping strategies and adherence treatment, culminating in the improved overall health status of the individual. However, a deeper understanding of the subjective dimensions of the disease must be an ongoing exercise. In so doing, it enables South Africa's psychology community to identify potentially problematic situations so that we can develop prevention and health promotion strategies that lead to a better quality of life for patients.